A severe acute disease with prolonged high fever up to 40° C (104° F), intractable headache, and a pink-to-purple raised rash, due to infection with a microorganism called Rickettsia prowazekii.
Among the other signs and symptoms of the disease are cough, dyspnea (difficulty breathing), vomiting, splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen), hypotension (low blood pressure), and neurologic abnormalities including seizures, coma, and mental confusion.
R. prowazekii is found worldwide. It is transmitted by the human body louse (Pediculus humanus corporis). The lice become infected on typhus patients and transmit the illness to other people.
The mortality rate from epidemic typhus increases with age. Over half of untreated persons age 50 or more die but people of all ages can perish of the disease. Anne Frank died of epidemic typhus in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
The neurologic features gave the disease its name from the Greek word “typhos,” which means smoke, cloud, and stupor arising from fever. Epidemic typhus is also known as classic typhus, European typhus, jail fever, louse-borne typhus, ship fever.
- Typhus, murine
An acute infectious disease with fever, headache, and rash, all quite similar to, but milder than, epidemic typhus, caused by a related microorganism, Rickettsia typhi (mooseri), transmitted to humans by rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis). The animal reservoir includes rats, mice and other rodents. Murine typhus occurs sporadically worldwide but is more prevalent in congested rat-infested […]
- Typhus, tick
Also known as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, an acute febrile (feverish) disease initially recognized in the Rocky Mountain states, caused by Rickettsia rickettsii transmitted by hard-shelled (ixodid) ticks. Occurs only in the Western Hemisphere. In the USA it is most common in the southeastern and south-central states, not in the Rocky Mountains. Anyone frequenting tick-infested […]
- Typhus, urban. of Malaya
Murine typhus, an acute infectious disease with fever, headache, and rash, all quite similar to, but milder than, epidemic typhus. It is caused by a related microorganism, Rickettsia typhi (mooseri), transmitted to humans by rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis). The animal reservoir includes rats, mice and other rodents. Murine typhus occurs sporadically worldwide but is more […]
- Typist's cramp
A dystonia that affects the muscles of the hand and sometimes the forearm and only occurs during handwriting. Similar focal dystonias have also been called writer’s cramp, pianist’s cramp, musician’s cramp, and golfer’s cramp.
A genetic disorder involving the metabolism of the amino acid tyrosine characterized by abnormally high levels of tyrosine in blood (hypertyrosinemia) and urine (tyrosinuria). There are several different forms of tyrosinemia. The classic form, tyrosinemia type I, is due to deficiency of an enzyme called fumarylacetoacetic hydrolase, the last enzyme in the tyrosine pathway. Although […]