Vaccine against poliomyelitis named for Dr. Jonas Salk who developed and introduced it in 1955. It was the first type of polio vaccine to become available. It was made by cultivating three strains of the virus separately in monkey tissue. The virus was separated from the tissue, stored for a week, and killed with formaldehyde. This killed-virus vaccine was given by injection and required 4 “shots.” The oral form of the vaccine, subsequently developed by Dr. Albert Sabin, is in standard use today since it is easier to administer and is more effective than the Salk vaccine. The Salk vaccine is now exclusively of historic interest.
The American physician and virologist Jonas Salk (1914-1995) did research on the influenza virus at the University of Michigan and on poliovirus at the University of Pittsburgh. In 1963 he became the first director of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies at the University of California, San Diego.
Microbial preparations of killed or modified microorganisms that can stimulate an immune response in the body to prevent future infection with similar microorganisms. These preparations are usually delivered by injection.
1. The cowpox virus which is used to vaccinate against smallpox. 2. A cutaneous or systemic reaction to vaccination with the smallpox vaccine as, for example, in congenital vaccinia and progressive vaccinia.
- Vaccinia adverse reaction
See Smallpox vaccination adverse reaction.
- Vaccinia immune globulin
A blood product rich in antibodies against vaccinia, the virus in the smallpox vaccine. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) is the only known antidote to the complications of vaccination. It is derived from the blood of people who have been vaccinated recently, usually within the past 2 months. VIG is believed to be used against some […]
- Vaccinia keratitis
Infection of the cornea due to implantation of vaccinia virus from a smallpox vaccination. People with pre-existing eye disease (particularly inflammatory diseases of the lids, conjunctiva and cornea) are particularly prone to implantation of the vaccinia virus from contact with contaminated hands. Caretakers who bath or otherwise handle children with vaccinations are the most likely […]