Infection of the cornea due to implantation of vaccinia virus from a smallpox vaccination. People with pre-existing eye disease (particularly inflammatory diseases of the lids, conjunctiva and cornea) are particularly prone to implantation of the vaccinia virus from contact with contaminated hands. Caretakers who bath or otherwise handle children with vaccinations are the most likely to experience such transfer. A week to 10 days after transfer the clinical signs of infection appear in the cornea. The infection can cause abrasion, ulceration and subsequent clouding of the cornea which impairs vision.
Without treatment, there may be considerable scarring as the lesion heals with significant impairment of vision. Topical antiviral agents are the treatment of choice. Current information suggests that a combination of an antiviral nucleoside and interferon topically speeds healing. Agents such as vidarabine, trifluridine or acyclovir have been used. Vaccinia Immune Globulin (VIG) is contraindicated for use in vaccinial keratitis. If VIG is administered, an antigen-antibody reaction is accentuated in the cornea and may result in significantly more cloudiness than in the normal healing process.
- VACTERL association
V = Vertebral anomalies; and A = Anal atresia (no hole at the bottom end of the intestine); C = Cardiac defect, most often ventricular septal defect; TE = TracheoEsophageal fistula (communication between the esophagus and trachea) with esophageal atresia (part of the esophagus is not hollow); R = Renal (kidney) abnormalities; and L = […]
the anterior (front) vaginal fornix and the posterior (rear) vaginal fornix. The cervix protrudes slightly into the vagina, and through a tiny hole in the cervix (the os), sperm make their way toward the internal reproductive organs. The vagina also includes numerous tiny glands that make vaginal secretions.
- Vagina, septate
A rare condition in which the vagina is divided, usually longitudinally, to create a double vagina. This situation can be easily missed by the patient and even by the physician on exam. If the patient becomes sexually active prior to diagnosis, one of the vaginas stretches and becomes dominant. The other vagina slips slightly upward […]
- Vaginal birth after Cesarian section
It was once the rule that, after a C-section, the next delivery also had to be by C-section. Now, vaginal delivery after Cesarian section (VBAC) is sometimes feasible. Age is one the factors that need to be considered, since women over 30 who try a vaginal delivery after a C-section are about three times more […]
- Vaginal contraceptive sponge
A contraceptive device that is donut-shaped, made of plastic, contains a spermicide (nonoxynol-9) and is inserted into the vagina to cover the cervix. A loop is provided to ease removal. The sponge protects against contraception for up to 24 hours and for multiple acts of intercourse within this time. It is left in place for […]