Mental disorientation, confusion, delusions and depression
Death, if untreated.
Pellagra, once a puzzle, was solved by Joseph Goldberger (1874-1929). Serving in the Public Health Service, Dr. Goldberger proposed that pellagra was due to a nutritional deficiency and in 1915 began experiments with Mississippi prison inmates (who “volunteered” in return for full pardons). Dr. Goldberger fed them a poor diet he believed caused pellagra and within months, many developed the disease. Their symptoms of pellagra were reversed when meat, fresh vegetables and milk were added to their diet.
Niacin, Dr. Goldberger subsequently showed, was the principle that had this remarkable effect. A readily-available B vitamin, niacin cures pellagra and prevents it.
The name “pellagra” comes from the Italian “pelle”, skin + “agra”, rough = rough skin, referring to the skin problems in pellagra.
- Vitamin B5
Vitamin B5 is pantothenic acid, one of the less well known B vitamins, perhaps because it is widely distributed in nature. Pantothenic acid is virtually ubiquitous. It is present in foods as diverse as poultry, soybeans, yogurt, and sweet potatoes. No naturally occurring disease due to a deficiency of pantothenic acid has been identified, due […]
- Vitamin B6
A group of closely related chemical compounds with related names — pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine — that are transformed within the body to yet another form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal phosphate, that acts as a coenzyme. (A number of vitamins serve as coenzymes, substances that enhance the action of enzymes and thereby aid in catalyzing […]
- Vitamin C
An essential nutrient found mainly in fruits and vegetables. The body requires vitamin C to form and maintain bones, blood vessels, and skin. Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, one that cannot be stored by the body except in insignificant amounts. It must be replenished daily. Vitamin […]
- Vitamin D
for those 1-70 years of age, 600 IU daily; for those 71 years and older, 800 IU daily; and for pregnant and lactating women, 600 IU daily. The IOM further recommended that serum 25(OH)D levels of 20ng/mL (= 50 nmol/L) is adequate, and levels > 50ng/mL (= 125 nmol/L) could have potential adverse effects As […]
- Vitamin D requirement
for those 1-70 years of age, 600 IU daily; for those 71 years and older, 800 IU daily; and for pregnant and lactating women, 600 IU daily. The IOM further recommended that serum 25(OH)D levels of 20ng/mL (= 50 nmol/L) is adequate, and levels > 50ng/mL (= 125 nmol/L) could have potential adverse effects