A condition in which the skin turns white due to the loss of pigment from the melanocytes, cells that produce the pigment melanin that gives the skin color. In vitiligo, the melanocytes are destroyed, leaving depigmented patches of skin. The hair that grows in areas affected by vitiligo may also turn white. The skin is not otherwise damaged. People with vitiligo must protect their skin from exposure to the sun. Also known as piebald skin and acquired leukoderma.
Removal of the gel (called the vitreous) from within the eyeball. This may be done because it has blood and scar tissue in it that blocks sight. The eye surgeon then replaces the clouded gel with a clear fluid.
A clear, jelly-like substance that fills the middle of the eye. Also called the vitreous humor, “humor” in medicine referring to a fluid (or semifluid) substance.
- Vocal cord
We use the larynx when we breathe, talk, or swallow. Its outer wall of cartilage forms the area of the front of the neck referred to as the “Adams apple.” Each time we inhale (breathe in), air goes into our nose or mouth, then through the larynx, down the trachea, and into our lungs. When […]
- Vocal cord paralysis
Inability of one or both vocal folds (vocal cords) to move. The paralysis is usually due to damage to the nerves going to the vocal cords or due to damage to the brain itself. In more technical terms, vocal cord paralysis may result from lesions in the nucleus ambiguus or its supranuclear tracts in the […]
- Vohwinkel syndrome
A genetic disorder characterized by hearing loss and thickened skin, particularly on the knuckles. The sensorineural hearing is mild-to-moderate in degree. The thickening of the skin (hyperkeratosis) can be “mutilating” and cause autoamputation of the digits. The syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. It is caused by mutation in the GJB2 gene (connexin […]