Clade: Related organisms descended from a common ancestor. For example, isolate M of HIV-1 (the human immunodeficiency virus) consists of at least ten clades. Imported from the Greek, klados, branch in 1911 in reference to the Tree of Life.
Clap: Gonorrhea, a bacterial infection transmitted by sexual contact. Gonorrhea is one of the oldest known sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In women infected with this bacteria (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), 25% to 40% will also be infected with another bacteria that can cause another STD called Chlamydia. Gonorrhea is NOT transmitted from toilet seats. More than half […]
- Clark level of invasion
Clark level of invasion: A method for determining the prognosis (outlook) with melanoma. The method was devised by the pathologist Wallace Clark and measures the depth of penetration of a melanoma into the skin according to anatomic layer. There are five Clark levels of invasion: Level I: Melanomas confined to the outermost layer of the […]
- Clasped thumbs and mental retardation
Clasped thumbs and mental retardation: A syndrome with the following characteristic features: (1) neurologically: mental retardation and aphasia (lack of speech); (2) limbs: adducted (clasped) thumbs, absent extensor pollicis longus and/or brevis muscles to the thumb, shuffling gait, and leg spasticity; (3) growth: small body size; (4) skeleton: lumbar lordosis (sway back). The syndrome is […]
Limping. From the Latin claudicare, which means ‘to limp.’ The Roman emperor Claudius was so named because he limped, probably because of a birth defect.
- Claudication, intermittent
Pain in the calf that comes and goes, typically felt while walking, and usually subsiding with rest. Intermittent claudication can be due to temporary artery narrowing due to vasospasm, permanent artery narrowing due to atherosclerosis, or complete occlusion of an artery to the leg. The prognosis is generally favorable because the condition often stabilizes or […]