Genome, rice: The first commercially important plant to have its genome sequenced. This feat, completed early in 2001, is particularly important because rice is a staple food for a large portion of the population of the world. With the rice sequence, genes can be located to improve yields and make rice more nutritious.
Rice was the second plant to have its genome sequenced. The first was arabidopsis, a mustard-like weed that is “the laboratory mouse of the plant world.”
The rice genome has about 430 million base pairs. Arabidopsis has a much smaller genome with about 125 million base pairs. By comparison, the human genome is about 3.1 billion base pairs long.
- Genome, Vibrio cholerae
Genome, Vibrio cholerae: The genome of the bacterium that causes cholera. This genome contains over 4 million bases in its DNA including the sequences for nearly 4,000 genes. The Vibrio cholerae genome is remarkable in that it is arranged in two circular chromosomes. The larger of the two chromosomes has the usual housekeeping genes, similar […]
Genomic: Pertaining to the genome, all of the genetic information possessed by any organism. There are, for instance, the human genome, the elephant genome, the mouse genome, the yeast genome, etc. Humans and many other higher animals have two genomes, namely: A chromosomal genome which is in the nucleus of the cell; and A mitochondrial […]
- Genomic imprinting
Genomic imprinting: The phenomenon of parent-of-origin gene expression. The expression of a gene depends upon the parent who passed on the gene. For instance, two different disorders – Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome — are due to deletion of the same part of chromosome 15. When the deletion involves the chromosome 15 that came from […]
- Genomic library
Genomic library: A collection of clones that is made from a set of randomly generated overlapping DNA fragments and that represents the entire genome of an organism. Also known as clone bank.
- Genomic segment
Genomic segment: A region of the genome; it encompasses objects described as loci or probes. Genomic segments can range in size from points to regions as large as an entire chromosome. There are many types of genomic regions. On a technical level, they include genes, gene elements, amplimers (PCR markers), breakpoints in chromosomes, clones, cytogenetic […]