The constellation of abnormalities caused by infection with the rubella (German measles) virus before birth. The syndrome is characterized by multiple congenital malformations (birth defects) and mental retardation.
The individual features of the syndrome include growth retardation, microcephaly (abnormally small head), cataracts, glaucoma, microphthalmia (abnormally small eyes), cardiovascular malformations, hearing loss, and mental retardation. Deafness is common. After birth the child may develop diabetes due to gradual destruction of the pancreas by the rubella virus.
The child has a 50% risk of being born with the congenital rubella syndrome, if the mother is infected with rubella in the first trimester (the first third) of pregnancy. Risks still exist with infection in the second trimester
The discovery of the congenital rubella syndrome by the Australian ophthalmologist (eye doctor) NM Gregg in 1941 is of historic importance. It provided the first evidence that the placental barrier between the mother and the fetus does not fully protect the fetus from teratogens (agents that can cause birth defects).
The rubella epidemic of 1963-1965 resulted in 1,800,000 infected individuals, approximately 20,000 fetal deaths and about 30,000 infants born with congenital rubella syndrome. Since the introduction of the rubella vaccine in 1969 there are less than 120 cases of congenital rubella syndrome reported each year.
The condition also goes by the name of fetal rubella effects.
- Syndrome, Conn
Overproduction of the hormone aldosterone (pronounced al-do-ster-one) by a tumor that contains tissue resembling that normally present in the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal gland. The excess aldosterone results in a potassium level (hypokalemia), underacidity of the body (alkalosis), muscle weakness, excessive thirst (polydipsia), excessive urination (polyuria), and high blood pressure (hypertension). Also called […]
- Syndrome, contiguous gene
severe developmental delay or mental retardation, severe speech impairment, gait ataxia (wobbliness) and/or tremulousness of the limbs; and a unique behavior with an inappropriate happy demeanor that includes frequent laughing, smiling, and excitability. In addition, microcephaly (abnormally small head) and seizures are common.) In Angelman syndrome the genes that were lost prove always to have […]
- Syndrome, cracked tooth
A toothache caused by a broken tooth (tooth fracture) without associated cavity or advanced gum disease. Biting on the area of tooth fracture can cause severe sharp pains. These fractures are usually due to chewing or biting hard objects such as hard candies, pencils, nuts, etc. Cracked tooth syndrome is most common in molars and […]
- Syndrome, Creutzfeldt-Jakob
Better known as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). A dementing disease of the brain. It is believed due to an unconventional (not a bacteria or virus), transmissible agent called a prion. Symptoms of CJD include forgetfulness, nervousness, jerky trembling hand movements, unsteady gait, muscle spasms, chronic dementia, balance disorder, and loss of facial expression. CJD is classified […]
- Syndrome, Cushing
An abnormal growth of the pituitary gland, which can stimulate the adrenal gland; A benign or malignant growth within the adrenal gland itself, which produces cortisol; or Production within another part of the body (ectopic production) of a hormone that directly or indirectly stimulates the adrenal gland to make cortisol. The neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing (1869-1939) […]